A list of the items in the Poly/ML basis. These are the pre-defined structures, values, types and functors. Many of them are from the Standard Basis Library and are not described in much detail here. The entries that are specific to Poly/ML are explained in greater detail.
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Poly/ML supports the ML Standard Basis Library. The documentation is available as a book, The Standard ML Basis Library, by Emden Gansner and John Reppy. This is a short overview with specific reference to the implementation in Poly/ML.
Mainly standard exceptions. All of the values in the General structure are available unqualified at the top level.
The option type, defined as datatype 'a option = NONE | SOME of 'a, together with associated functions. Some of these are available unqualified at the top level.
signature INTEGER signature INT_INF structure Int: INTEGER structure LargeInt: INTEGER structure Position: INTEGER structure Position: INTEGER structure IntInf: INT_INF
Int, LargeInt and Position are the same structure and provide operations on type int. In Poly/ML that is an arbitrary precision integer. Poly/ML does not support any fixed precision integers. IntInf provides additional functions, such as logical operations on integers. Note: there are functions to compute LCM and GCD in PolyML.IntInf.
Int32 provides a fixed precision 32-bit integer
Real and LargeReal are the same structure in Poly/ML. They provide functions on type real.
Functions to manipulate IEEE real numbers, such as controlling rounding and handling not-a-number.
signature WORD structure Word8: WORD structure LargeWord: WORD structure SysWord: WORD structure Word32: WORD structure Word64: WORD
Operations on machine words treated as unsigned quantities. Functions which would overflow simply wrap round. Poly/ML implements Word.word as a 31 bit quantity on 32-bit platforms and a 63 bit quantity on 64-bit platforms. In version 5.5 and earlier LargeWord and SysWord were implemented using a double precision version. From version 5.5.1 they are implemented as 32 and 64-bit versions as Word32 and Word64 respectively. Word64 is only available on 64-bit architectures. SysWord is used in the Windows and Posix structures. Word8.word is an unsigned byte.
Additional string functions used primarily when converting between strings and string representations.
Operations on substrings. These are segments of strings defined by a base string, an offset and a length and are designed to allow substrings to be manipulated without the storage overhead of creating the substrings themselves.
The Text structure collects together various structures related to characters.
Functions on lists and lists of pairs.
Polymorphic vector and array.
signature MONO_VECTOR signature MONO_ARRAY structure Word8Vector: MONO_VECTOR structure CharVector: MONO_VECTOR structure BoolVector: MONO_VECTOR structure IntVector: MONO_VECTOR structure RealVector: MONO_VECTOR structure Word8Array: MONO_ARRAY structure CharArray: MONO_ARRAY structure BoolArray: MONO_ARRAY structure IntArray: MONO_ARRAY structure RealArray: MONO_ARRAY
Monomorphic vectors and arrays. Generally these are designed to be storage-efficient at the expense of time. CharVector.vector is the same as string so provides vector operations on strings. Word8Vector.vector is used in various places throughout the library as a binary analogue of string. BoolVector and BoolArray use single bits for each value.
signature ARRAY2 structure Array2: ARRAY2 signature MONO_ARRAY2 structure Word8Array2: MONO_ARRAY2 structure CharArray2: MONO_ARRAY2 structure BoolArray2: MONO_ARRAY2 structure IntArray2: MONO_ARRAY2 structure RealArray2: MONO_ARRAY2
Two dimensional arrays.
signature VECTOR_SLICE signature ARRAY_SLICE structure VectorSlice: VECTOR_SLICE structure ArraySlice: ARRAY_SLICE
Polymorphic subvectors and subarrays.
signature MONO_VECTOR_SLICE signature MONO_ARRAY_SLICE structure Word8VectorSlice: MONO_VECTOR_SLICE structure CharVectorSlice: MONO_VECTOR_SLICE structure IntVectorSlice: MONO_VECTOR_SLICE structure RealVectorSlice: MONO_VECTOR_SLICE structure Word8ArraySlice: MONO_ARRAY_SLICE structure CharArraySlice: MONO_ARRAY_SLICE structure IntArraySlice: MONO_ARRAY_SLICE structure RealArraySlice: MONO_ARRAY_SLICE
Monomorphic subvectors and subarrays.
Provides functions to convert between characters and Word8.word values and between strings and Word8Vector.vector values. In Poly/ML these can generally be implemented as a cast so do not incur any time or space overhead.
Access to the command line and arguments. Does not include arguments taken by the run-time system.
Functions on times. Poly/ML implements this as microseconds since 1st January 1970 in Unix and nanoseconds since 1st January 1601 (FILETIME) in Windows.
signature PACK_WORD structure PackWord8Big: PACK_WORD structure PackWord8Little: PACK_WORD structure PackWord16Big: PACK_WORD structure PackWord16Little: PACK_WORD structure PackWord32Big: PACK_WORD structure PackWord32Little: PACK_WORD signature PACK_REAL structure PackRealBig: PACK_REAL structure PackRealLittle: PACK_REAL
Operations to pack and unpack integers and reals into byte vectors.
The IO structure contains types and exceptions used within the other IO structures.
The TextIO structure is the top level of the IO stack for textual input and output. This is level likely to be used most often. Input and output are side-effecting and, if necessary, characters such as newlines are translated between the ML and operating system codes.
This substructure access to a lower level of textual input and output. Output is not significantly different from that of TextIO but input is applicative rather than imperative. In essence this means that input functions return both a value, character or string, and a new stream. Reading from the new stream continues the input, reading from the original stream returns the previous value. This is intended to simplify backtracking in parsing and works particularly well with the scan functions in the library.
BinIO is similar to TextIO but for binary input and output.
While TextIO works on types char and string, BinIO
works on bytes (Word8.word) and byte vectors (Word8Vector.vector).
Unlike TextIO binary I/O does not perform any translation of characters.
Similar to TextIO.StreamIO.
The primitive I/O functions are the lowest level of the stack. They provide access to the underlying readers and writers.
signature IMPERATIVE_IO functor ImperativeIO ( ... ): IMPERATIVE_IO signature STREAM_IO functor StreamIO ( ... ): STREAM_IO signature PRIM_IO functor PrimIO ( ... ): PRIM_IO
These functors can be used to build new stacks to provide input and output on data structures other than characters and bytes.
signature OS signature OS_FILE_SYS signature OS_IO signature OS_PATH signature OS_PROCESS structure OS: OS
The OS structure contains a large number of functions for accessing operating system facilities. Most of them are grouped into substructures. OS.FileSys contains functions for examining directories and files. OS.Path operates on file path names. OS.Process provides functions to terminate the current ML program with various results, examine the environment and to run sub-processes. OS.IO provides the ability to poll a set of file descriptors.
CommandLine provides access to the command line arguments. Note that the Poly/ML run-time system recognises and removes various arguments and these are not included in the arguments available to the ML program.
Operations on sockets, providing access to network facilities from ML. Socket does not actually contain functions to create sockets. Instead these are found in the INetSock, UnixSock and GenericSock structures.
Creates internet domain sockets and provides functions on internet addresses.
Creates Unix domain (local) sockets. This structure is not provided in the Windows implementation.
Can be used to create sockets in any domain supported by the system.
signature NET_HOST_DB structure NetHostDB: NET_HOST_DB signature NET_PROT_DB structure NetProtDB: NET_PROT_DB signature NET_SERV_DB structure NetServDB: NET_SERV_DB
Look up names in various tables. NetHostDB looks up an internet address using DNS. NetProtDB looks up a protocol in (on Unix) /etc/protocols. NetServDB looks up a service in (on Unix) /etc/services.
Provides access to Unix-specific functions, such as forking a process. This structure is not provided in the Windows implementation.
signature POSIX signature POSIX_ERROR signature POSIX_SIGNAL signature POSIX_PROCESS signature POSIX_PROC_ENV signature POSIX_FILE_SYS signature POSIX_IO signature POSIX_SYS_DB signature POSIX_TTY structure Posix: POSIX
Provides access to a wide range of Unix system calls. This structure and the signatures are not provided in the Windows implementation.
Windows-specific functions. This structure is not provided in the Unix implementations.
There are a number of extensions to Poly/ML. Most of these are described in greater detail in other documents.
structure Asn1: ASN1 signature ASN1
Operations on ASN1 binary encoding. There are functions to help convert between tree structures and byte vectors. This is experimental.
Contains a large number of operations specific to Poly/ML. See here for full information.
This is the original implementation of parallelism in Poly/ML. It has now been reimplemented using the Thread structure. It is provided for backwards compatibility only.
RunCall contains various low-level operations for interface to the run-time system. RuntimeCalls contains symbolic definitions for entry points to the run-time system. These structures are intended only for use in the basis library itself and should not be used in user code unless absolutely necessary. It is very easy to use them in a way that will cause a crash or break the garbage-collector resulting in a failure at some point in the future.
Provides a way of handling Unix-style signals. On Windows this deals only with the interrupt signal, SIGINT. See here for full information.
Provides references that can only be assigned to once. Once a variable has been assigned a value that is fixed and further attempts to assign a new value result in an exception. The main reason for providing this is that once the value has been assigned it is marked as an immutable cell and this has advantages in efficiency for the garbage collector. Locked cells that contain the same value can be shared with PolyML.shareCommonData. See here for more information.
Provides backwards compatibility with ML90. This was included in an earlier draft of the Standard Basis Library but was withdrawn before the final release.
The Thread structure provides a way of creating parallel threads and synchronising between them. ThreadLib is an extension library for the Thread structure. See here for full information.
The Universal structure provides support for a universal union type that can contain a value of any type. It is used in various library functions. See here for full information.
Provides the ability to construct weak references, that is references that can be used to detect when all other pointers to the reference have been removed by the garbage collector. They are intended to allow a program to recover resources when they are no longer reachable. See here for full information.